Science publications should use checklists, badges to signal trustworthiness

first_img By Marcia McNutt and Kathleen Hall Jamieson Sept. 30, 2019 Reprints Most of us rely on vetted experts, brand names, seals of approval, and other signals of trust to help us decide on matters ranging from how to treat a dental abscess to which automobile is most fuel efficient. The resources needed to distinguish trustworthy scientific findings from those that are biased, irreproducible, or even fabricated are more elusive.That’s a problem, because the ability to make such distinctions is essential, given how relevant science is to everyday decisions such as when to vaccinate your child or whether it is safe to consume genetically engineered foods, especially in this age of misinformation.We believe that scientists and the journals that publish their work should do more to clearly and consistently signal to one another — as well as to the public who rely on their findings — which studies have satisfied standards that convey trustworthiness.advertisement Scientists have time-honored criteria for deciding which research results to trust. They look for work that has been assessed by independent, expert peer reviewers who have taken on the task of scrutinizing a study’s design and modeling, as well as how the authors collected, processed, and interpreted the data. Scientists also look for evidence that the research is open to independent verification and replication. This includes ready access to underlying data — with appropriate exceptions, such as to protect the privacy of human subjects — as well as to the study’s methods, computer code, and materials. Please enter a valid email address. Adobe Not only are scientists more likely to trust research that is open to such forms of interrogation, but journals and funding agencies are increasingly requiring it.advertisement Leave this field empty if you’re human: By describing a journal’s or publishing platform’s expectations of the quality controls a study must have completed before submission, a checklist improves the integrity of the science while also communicating to readers the standards for trustworthiness the submission had to meet. Such checklists should require that the researchers: have confirmed the nature of each author’s contributions; disclosed all potentially biasing relationships; and complied with the archiving standards of their fields to ensure access to the data, materials, and computer code needed to replicate the work.Three badges developed by the Center for Open Science Courtesy Center for Open ScienceThe capacity of a signal to communicate trustworthiness is enhanced if it is unambiguous, unavoidable, cannot be readily counterfeited, is delivered by a trusted source, and telegraphs its meaning to the intended audience. To serve these ends, we support the use of badges, such as those supplied by the Center for Open Science, to telegraph the dimensions of trustworthiness merited by a study at each stage of publication.The center’s current badges verify that a study complies with requirements for open data and materials, or that the experimental protocol was registered ahead of the conduct of the work — that’s needed to thwart the temptation to alter a hypothesis to suit the outcome of the experiment. Other possible badges could indicate that a journal has checked the article for plagiarism or image manipulation, or conducted an independent statistics review.Forward and backward hyperlinks should be used to tie replications to the original study, and those that are successfully replicated should earn additional badges. Such signaling creates incentives for following the practices the badges celebrate.Signals that a finding is unreliable are valuable as well. Accordingly, tying notices of retraction to a study’s metadata is a powerful means of protecting scientific knowledge. We also urge that hyperlinks be used to tie editorial “expressions of concern” and other updates to suspect articles. When someone accesses a study online, instead of getting just the study as originally published, he or she would also get an alert in the form of a watermark or something else clearly showing that the paper has been retracted and a link taking the reader to the retraction notice.As scientists, we and our colleagues are dismayed when members of the public are misled by discredited studies or don’t know how to identify trustworthy ones. It is about time for the scientific community to address this problem with consistent and meaningful signals showing which studies honor the norms that sustain trust.Marcia McNutt is the president of the National Academy of Sciences. Kathleen Hall Jamieson is director of the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania. [email protected] Scientists are also more likely to trust findings when they are able to scrutinize factors that might have biased how the authors approached the problem or interpreted the data. Such an assessment requires that researchers disclose their sources of funding and all relationships and interests that have to potential to influence the results of the study.The public intuitively seeks similar standards. In a recent Annenberg Public Policy Center survey, more than 6 in 10 respondents said that when deciding whether to accept a fresh scientific finding, they would want to know whether the authors disclosed the identities of their funders. Evidence that the public values science’s culture of critique was also on display by the fact that more than half of those surveyed reported that they were more likely to trust a result that had been peer reviewed.While far from fail safe, such scrutiny is an important part of the scientific ethos that presupposes that evidence be subject to independent examination. Of course, being transparent about research funders and surviving peer review do not guarantee that the findings of a research paper are robust, but a scholarly article that meets both standards is likely to be more trustworthy than one that does not.It is sometimes difficult, however, to know which papers have met these criteria. With the rise of so-called predatory journals that charge authors for publishing without performing peer review, even scientists sometimes have difficulty determining whether research has been independently vetted. At the same time, journals inconsistently signal whether their authors have honored transparency requirements or whether compliance with them has been verified.When journals mandate that competing interests be revealed, it isn’t necessarily clear which outside interests should be disclosed. Nor is the time period: Should only past relationships be disclosed? What about future ones? And recent news stories have illustrated the difficult time that reviewers and editors have verifying the accuracy of disclosures.Along with our colleagues Veronique Kiermer and Richard Sever, we argue in a recent issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that now is the time to more clearly signal the trustworthiness of individual scientific articles through the transparent use of checklists and “badges” to verify that a study has met certain standards of trustworthiness. Newsletters Sign up for First Opinion A weekly digest of our opinion column, with insight from industry experts. @Marcia4Science Lasker Award recipient had retracted some of his work — a sign of strength, not sloppiness Privacy Policy First OpinionScience publications should use checklists, badges to signal trustworthiness Marcia McNutt About the Authors Reprints Related: Kathleen Hall Jamieson [email protected]last_img read more

IMF Says Jamaica Met All Quarterly Performance Targets

first_imgIMF Says Jamaica Met All Quarterly Performance Targets Finance & Public ServiceAugust 27, 2010 FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail “An IMF team visited Kingston during August 18-27 to conduct the second review of the economic programme under the Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) approved by the Fund’s Executive Board on February 4, 2010.International Monetary Fund (IMF) Mission Chief in Jamaica, Trevor Alleyne(left), being greeted by Minister of Finance and the Public Service, the Hon Audley Shaw, at a press briefing at the Ministry, Heroes Circle, Kingston, recently.The focus of the mission was to assess the quantitative performance at end-June 2010 under the SBA and review the ongoing macroeconomic and structural policies. The structural reforms aim at strengthening fiscal management and the financial regulatory and supervisory frameworks.The team met with the Prime Minister Hon. Bruce Golding, the Minister of Finance Hon. Audley Shaw, Bank of Jamaica Governor Brian Wynter, and senior officials. The team thanks the authorities andtechnical staff for their excellent cooperation.“All end-June quantitative performance targets were met. A faster-than-expected improvement in macroeconomic conditions, especially the decline in interest rates on government securities, has had a net positive effect on the overall fiscal deficit. Strong GCT collections, reflecting improved tax administration efforts, and the continued cautiousexecution of expenditure were key to meeting the primary surplus target. The exchange rate has stabilized at an appreciated level and the NIR floor was exceeded by a large margin.“Overall, the structural reform agenda appears to be moving forward on schedule. The authorities have prepared amendments to strengthen the effectiveness of the fiscal responsibility framework; drafted a public sector master rationalization plan; startedimplementation of a tax administration reform; and made further progress in the divestment of public enterprises.In the financial sector, the phasing in of enhanced capital requirements has begun with the implementation of the first installment of risk weights applied to foreign currency denominated securities. The preparation of reforms to keylegislation aimed at further strengthening the supervisory and regulatory framework of thefinancial system is also on track.“The mission and the authorities have agreed on an updated draft Letter of Intent, which will still need to be approved by the Cabinet and IMF’s management.Based on the performance of the economic programme, the mission will recommend that the IMF ExecutiveBoard completes the Second Review of the SBA, which will result in the disbursement of SDR 31.9 million. The Board is expected to meet around the end of September.“The authorities have reiterated their strong commitment to the programme’s policies andobjectives, which aim at correcting long standing economic distortions and structural imbalances. However, ownership of the programme by all sectors remains vital to its success, including the sharing of the burden of fiscal adjustment.“Going forward, the risks to the programme remain high, including from the external economic environment, Jamaica’s very high debt, and the economy’s vulnerability to shocks. However, the mission is confident that the continued strong implementation of the programme will foster a stablemacroeconomic environment and a marked improvement in the overall investment climate which will lay the foundations for long-term sustained economic growth.” RelatedIMF Says Jamaica Met All Quarterly Performance Targets Advertisementscenter_img RelatedIMF Says Jamaica Met All Quarterly Performance Targets RelatedIMF Says Jamaica Met All Quarterly Performance Targetslast_img read more

Charity cycle to be held in memory of two Gardai killed in Donegal

first_img 45 new social homes to be built in Dungloe Charity cycle to be held in memory of two Gardai killed in Donegal Facebook By News Highland – September 2, 2014 Consultation launched on proposal to limit HGV traffic in Clady Google+ Facebook WhatsApp Hospitalisations rise as Donnelly suggests masks will stay ’til autumn Pinterest News RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHORcenter_img Twitter 90 cyclists are set to take part in a charity cycle in memory of two Gardaí killed in the line of duty here in Co Donegal.Former colleagues and friends of the late Gardai Robbie McCallion of Letterkenny Garda Station and Garda Gary McLoughlin who was attached to Buncrana Garda Station are participating in a charity cycle from Mizen Head to Malin Head between 7th and 12th September.The cyclists leave Mizen Head on the evening of Sunday 7th September, travelling via Killarney, Tralee, Tarbert, Lisdoonvarna, Oranmore, Claremorris and Sligo.On Thursday 11th September, the cyclists will return to County Donegal and will spendthe night in Donegal Town.  On Friday 12th September, the cyclists will take part in the final leg of the event, travelling from Donegal town to Malin Head.A short stop off in Letterkenny has been planned to  visit Tara Court on the Ramelton Road, and hold a short reflection in memory of Robbie.  The cyclists will then make their way to Lisfannon, Burt where there will be a similar short reflection in memory of Gary.The benefiting charities are:  Donegal Hospice,  The Jack & Jill Foundation, Cuisle Centre, Roscommon (Respite Centre run by the Irish Wheelchair Association), Beaumont Hospital ICU, Mayo/Roscommon Hospice.The organisers would ask the public to support the event.Sponsors, including Hegartys Ford, Letterkenny, The Pulse, Letterkenny, Desmond Motors, Derry are thanked sincerely.The late Garda Robbie Mc McCallion passed away in Beaumont Hospital on 7th April 2009 after being  struck by a stolen car at Tara Court ,Letterkenny on 26th March 2009. He was 29 years of age.The late Garda Gary Mc Laughlin passed away at Letterkenny General Hospital on 14th December 2009 following a traffic collision at Lisfannon, Burt the previous day. He  was 24 years of age.Sergeant Paul Wallace says anyone can take part:Audio Player Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Previous articleDonegal and Kerry to wear traditional colours in finalNext articleKirsten Dunst criticises Apple for leaked photos News Highland Disruption to cancer service will increase mortality – Oncologist Google+ Twitter Donegal hoteliers enjoy morale boost as bookings increase WhatsApp Pinterestlast_img read more

UPG Sustainability Leadership Program 2021

first_img Share 0 For more information, please visit the official web page. +1 UPG Sustainability Leadership Program 2021 University of Winnipeg President’s Scholarships for World Leaders 2021/2022 Tweet How to Apply?Competition for the UPGSL is merit-based. After the deadline, all eligible applications will be reviewed by a selection panel. Individuals and Institutions of any nature interested in sending candidates, are entitled to apply for the program.When completing the application, please note:• Applications must be completed online; applications that are mailed, faxed or emailed to UPG will not be accepted;• Questions that are marked with a red asterisk must be answered;• Individuals may only submit one application. If an applicant submits two applications using different email addresses, then the individual will be disqualified; Pocket The Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program 2021 Deadline: 30 November 2020Open to: candidates aged 18-35 years from all nationalitiesBenefits: fully fundedDescriptionUnited People Global (UPG) is a community that encourages and enables people to participate in making the world a better place. This is achieved in various ways and especially by contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). UPG works to raise awareness, strengthen belief, facilitate collaboration and foster community. UPG Sustainability Leadership mobilizes people and organizations to support positive citizen leadership on sustainability. UPG brings together people who are committed to impact by taking positive actions.In 2019 UPG successfully trained 60 UPG Sustainability Leaders from 30 countries around the world, due to the covid19 outbreak, it was not possible to carry out the 2020 edition, but it is with great joy that they officially announce the return of the program in 2021. For 2021 UPG is training and certifying 500 young leaders from all over the world and flying 60 of them to a complementary and immersive 1-week experience on an island in the USA, The program will be held in Rockland, Hurricane Island Center for Science and Leadership. This is a fully-funded program and all the expenses of the selected candidates will be covered.EligibilityCandidates must be 18-35 years of age.Candidates must be self-motivated, capable of overcoming major challenges and able to think outside the boxApplicants from all nationalities are eligible.The training will be in English, the participant must have a good command of the English language.Candidates from all genders and candidates with disabilities are encouraged to applyBenefits Participants will have the costs of the program covered – Training material. Accommodation, subsistence, local transportation, international flights (a round trip flight from participant’s hometown to the US). Commonwealth Distance Learning Scholarships 2021/2022 Reddit Similar Stories October 28, 2020 Published by Bojana LinkedIn 0 ← Apply to CEU and Study in Vienna with a Scholarship ChangeMakers Seed Grant Opportunity 2021 →last_img read more