The Chiron titanium cyclocross bike isn’t new, but they had it built up with big touring tires to show an alternate use. Sarto Antonio is a custom Italian builder that works in carbon fiber for both road and mountain bikes, that latter offered in hardtail and full suspension designs. For this year’s show, he brought his new Gravel TA Wave road bike that upgrades prior road bike designs to use thru axles and his “Wave” seatstays.Check those and the other details, plus some of the shapeliest custom carbon out there from Alchemy and Formigli, below… The soft-tail like design provides just 3mm compression at the wave, but they say that’s enough to take the edge off by the time those bumps would have reached your own soft tail. It’s available on any of their road bikes, not just the gravel grinder. Work isn’t limited to their own frames, either. Have something special you want on your own bike? Give ’em a shout…this Specialized Roubaix looked stunning!Check them out at AlchemyBicycle.com and Ethic Paintworks here. Their other Campy custom bike entry was even shinier!FORMIGLIFormigli debuted The One road race bike in 2013, but this is a new color for 2016.He’s able to do these big, shapely tubes in custom geometries by using a tube to tube construction. So, even though it looks like a big monocoque structure, they’re laying up each tube custom to the rider, then wrapping them together at the right angles. Check out our pre-show interview with Renzo Formigli here. And his website is here.ALCHEMY & ETHIC PAINTWORKSAlchemy had been releasing new models prior to the show (here and here), so their focus was to simply share what they had rather than debut a new model. That didn’t stop them from winning the People’s Choice and Best Mountain Bike awards with the Arktos full suspension shredder. Tooled thru axles, beefy derailleur hangers and flat mount disc brakes give the bike a very modern, very good look.A hardened downtube protector keeps all that gravel from chewing up your frame……and a leather top tube wrap keep the bar from biting into it if you wreck.Further aiding the rear’s micro suspension is their own saddle, which has a small amount of squish at the nose, where the bolt for the rail’s frame attaches it to the shell.Clearance for larger tires is the final assault against discomfort.Their Campagnolo contest entry had a simple yet gorgeous paint scheme. Made in the USA.The bigger emphasis in their booth was showing off the capabilities of their new in-house paint studio, Ethic Paintworks. In addition to the Arktos up top, they had detail matching frame and fork on one of their hardtails (and the components, check the cockpit).
Related Fitness accessory FlipBelt is now available in a new reflective version ready for dark winter mornings and evenings. The Reflective FlipBelt running and exercise belt is made with high quality moisture wicking micropoly fabric and stretch-friendly, ultra-reflective 3M materials.Primarily targeted at runners, the product’s large-pocket tubular design allows users to carry large phones, keys, ID, cards, cash, small medical devices and more without a backpack, running pouch or running armband. FlipBelt fits securely around the waist ‘without riding up or bouncing and comfortably fits over clothing for maximum reflectiveness’.The FlipBelt is designed to carry on-the-go essentials without tying up the hands. FlipBelt ‘slides right on and sits snug on the hip’. The company adds that, ‘Whether you’re on a run, riding a bike, working out at the gym, with the Flipbelt, there´s no bulk, no chafing and no riding up.’Available across the UK, the new Reflective FlipBelt is priced at £32.www.flipbelt.co.uk
“I think my hand fighting skills and just me getting to my attacks were key. Just making sure my defense was perfect too, and it worked out pretty well for me,” Steveson said. “Compared to last year when I took second it feels real good. I’m excited. From here, we just keep pushing forward.”McKee, who also punched his ticket to U.S. Bank Stadium, earned victories in the round of 16 and the quarterfinals before losing an 11-3 major decision to Ohio State’s Luke Pletcher in the semifinal round. McKee did not participate Sunday due to injury but will be ready for the NCAA Championships, according to Eggum. Lee also found himself in the consolation bracket after a tight 4-1 loss to Iowa’s Pat Lugo in the semifinal round. Making his way to the third place match, Lee lost in another narrow 3-0 decision, this time to Nebraska’s Collin Purinton, to take fourth. Skatzka beat a familiar foe in Nebraska’s Mikey Labriola twice over the weekend during his run, the second of which was an 8-3 decision in the fifth place match. With only the NCAA Championships remaining, Steveson and the Gophers now turn their eyes toward U.S. Bank Stadium.“I feel real good right now, just take it day by day like I’ve always said. This tournament is a stepping stone to a bigger thing,” Steveson said. “I’ve never ran from anything and this is just my one step to being [in] a national championship.” Steveson wins heavyweight title as Gophers take eighth at the Big Ten ChampionshipsEight Gophers have qualified for the NCAA Championships.Liam ArmstrongSophomore Gable Steveson celebrates after a winning a match during the meet against Nebraska at the Maturi Pavilion on Friday, Feb. 21. Nolan O’HaraMarch 10, 2020Jump to CommentsShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare via EmailPrintA year removed from his second place finish at the Big Ten Championships, top-ranked sophomore Gable Steveson returned to take the heavyweight crown, knocking off previously undefeated Mason Parris of Michigan in the finals. Steveson led the way for the Gopher wrestling team, which placed eighth at the Big Ten Championships. In all, five Gophers earned spots on the podium: Steveson (champion), senior Mitch McKee (sixth), redshirt freshman Brayton Lee (fourth), redshirt senior Devin Skatzka (fifth) and redshirt senior Hunter Ritter (eighth). Also placing for the Gophers were redshirt sophomore Bailee O’Reilly and senior Owen Webster, who came in ninth and 11th in their respective weight classes. Steveson, McKee, Lee and Skatzka have all earned automatic bids to the NCAA Championships March 19-21. “As a team we wanted to finish a lot higher,” said head coach Brandon Eggum. “Some guys did some great things, got a Big Ten championship out of Gable Steveson, so that was exciting, but ultimately we’re just hoping we can get a couple more of the wild card spots, bring a few more guys to the nationals and have a good weekend here in a week and a half.” Steveson’s championship run began with a quick pin of Rutgers’ Alex Esposito in the quarterfinal round. With the win, Steveson advanced to the semifinal round where he won the rematch with Iowa’s Tony Cassioppi in a 9-4 decision. Steveson previously beat Cassioppi in a 7-5 decision on Feb. 15. With Steveson and Parris both advancing to the finals Sunday, the much anticipated match between two undefeated heavyweights had finally arrived. Steveson struck first with a pair of takedowns in the first period with Parris scoring off escapes, making it a 4-2 match. Parris added the only point in the second off an escape to bring himself within one. Starting on bottom in the third, Steveson quickly added an escape point of his own and landed his third takedown of the match to give himself breathing room. Steveson gave up a takedown late, but Parris wasn’t able to get the second takedown needed to send the match to sudden victory.
Members of the Tourist Board of the Tourist Board of the Istrian County made a unanimous decision at the 21st session and advocate that the proposal of the Value Added Tax Act, which almost doubles the VAT rate on catering, is extremely harmful to tourism and catering in the long run. economic activity of the Istrian County, but also to related activities such as agriculture and construction.Today, tourism and catering are one of the few growing activities in Croatia that invest more and more every year, and according to data from 2012, before the introduction of the VAT intermediate rate, investments in tourism amounted to about 2 billion kuna per year without growth. The councils add that the announced investments in 2016 will amount to 4,3 billion kuna, and the current growth dynamics will reach as much as 7 billion kuna per year in 2019.”The County of Istria is at the forefront of this significant growth cycle of investment in tourism. Investment activity is extremely important because through increased consumption, employment and the construction sector it brings an increase in inflows into the state budget.”, Said Mayor Flego, adding that the adoption of such a Law on Value Added Tax, seen in combination with other measures that make up the tax reform proposed by the Ministry of Finance, would be an increase in the overall tax burden on tourism, which the Council considers a strategically wrong move. consequences for the economy of Istria and the Republic of Croatia.”Increasing the tax burden on the economy is completely contrary to all national strategic documents and announcements of the Government “, said the Istrian prefect, adding that with such a move, even more money will end up in the state treasury and the state will be further centralized.Photo: Barmen.hrWith the conclusion, the Tourist Board of the Istrian County points out that a double increase in VAT on catering would mean:1. A negative blow to the economy of Istria, which has a positive effect on the economy of the whole of Croatia- In Istria, we continuously invest a lot of effort and private and public funds in the development of the tourist offer, which has made an extremely big step forward in the results of the tourist season, but also in the overall branding and attractiveness of Croatia as an attractive tourist destination.- Tourism is a significant generator of the Istrian economy, which records above-average results – the average GDP per capita in Istria County is one fifth higher than the Croatian average, the unemployment rate is twice lower, and Istria has a significant current account surplus, thus stabilizing the overall Croatian economy- Double doubling of VAT on catering in Istria will destabilize the further development of Istrian agriculture for which catering is a key sales and marketing channel, especially winemaking, olive growing, meat and dairy industry, as well as other crafts and family farms that show the way destination development and year-round business to other tourist regions of the Republic of Croatia2. Non-competitiveness in relation to other destinations – The current VAT rate in catering of 13% is already the highest in the Mediterranean. Prices in hotels and restaurants in Croatia are similar to those in Portugal, Greece, Turkey and Malta and slightly lower than in more developed markets such as Italy, Spain, Germany or Austria, but we cannot compare with these markets due to a much higher standard and much more developed total tourist offer.- The situation in the environment shows that there is no room for price increases because caterers would become uncompetitive, so the expected consequences of the VAT increase are a reduction in investment and employment in this activity.3. Stopping the development of the tourist offer that ensures long-term success and competitiveness of each destination- Gastronomy is a significant part of the overall tourist offer and has a great influence on the development of a successful image of the entire destination, which Istria has shown- Catering and non-board consumption are an integral part of the offer of tourist facilities such as hotels, apartment complexes and camps, so the increase in VAT will have a direct negative impact on further development of quality and range not only in restaurants but in all tourist facilities.- Raising the VAT on catering threatens to stop the cycle of development of the tourist offer and is a step backwards when we offered tourists only “sun and sea”4. Decline in investment and employment as an economic consequence of the proposed tax reform- Catering and food and beverage services are an integral part of every tourist facility, so the increase in VAT as a direct consequence will reduce the capacity and willingness of investors for further investments- Reduction of investments means a decrease in employment in relation to the dynamics envisaged by the Tourism Development Strategy, and consequently a loss of budget inflows5. Increasing the gray economy and unfair competition- Reducing the tax burden in the hospitality industry in 2013 reduced the gray economy, which recorded a long-term positive effect on the entire economy, but also on the image of our destination among guests- The announcement of the return of the full VAT rate is a step backwards in the fight against the gray economy and unfair competition, and it threatens that guests will again see Croatia as a backward destination where no invoices are issued and taxes are avoided.6. CateringCaterers are the biggest losers in tax reform. Although they will undoubtedly benefit from other measures (reduction of income tax, ie profit, recognition of part of the representation), it is clear that doubling the VAT will be a great burden for their further work. They are particularly surprised by the fact that the increase is taking place despite the Croatian Tourism Development Strategy for the period until 2020, which envisages a reduction in VAT. It is clear that in this way the competitiveness of Croatian tourism is reduced, given that in close and competitive countries the VAT rate ranges from 6-10%. The reduction of the VAT rate in 2013 led to a new investment cycle, which resulted in good business results in the last two tourist seasons.MEETING OF ISTRIAN COUNTY CATERERSCaterers of Istria and the surrounding area invite you to participate in a large gathering of Istrian caterers that will be held 21.11.2016. at 17 pm in the Pazin Memorial House. The topic of this gathering will be related to the increase of VAT for caterers from 13 to as much as 25%.“A hasty decision that runs counter to a number of things, and ultimately endangers less and less long-term caterers whose trades are unlikely to be able to survive this burden. Caterers fear that the government’s move will lead to numerous layoffs, the closure of many smaller outlets but also force young entrepreneurs to move beyond the country’s borders where their success will depend solely on them.. “Point out the Croatian Association of Waiters and Bartenders.
In 2016, the Adris Group generated total revenue in the amount of HRK 5,55 billion, while operating income amounted to HRK 5,11 billion. Revenue from sales of goods and services amounted to HRK 3,97 billion. HRK 2,81 billion was generated on the domestic market and HRK 1,16 billion on foreign markets. Net profit amounts to HRK 501 million, which is an increase of 27 percent compared to the same period last year. If the one-off effects of the extraordinary net profit realized from the transaction of the tobacco part of the business are excluded, the net profit after minority interests amounts to HRK 446 million, which is 19 percent more than last year’s profit.Maistra continues the investment cycle with the growth of all key business indicatorsIn 2016, Maistra continued to grow all key business indicators, and the process of investing in the highest segments of the hotel offer continued. In 2016, almost HRK 500 million was invested. The largest investment, worth more than 300 million kuna, is the family hotel Amarin. It is an innovative hotel product and the largest investment in Istrian tourism in 2016. Also, the construction of the new Park Hotel is underway, a key product in the process of completing the top hotel offer in Rovinj. In addition to investing in raising the quality of its own content, Maistra is also focused on increasing the visibility and offer of the entire destination. So, for example, in May 2016, Maistra was the organizer of an attractive sporting event, the prestigious Beach Polo Cup tournament.Maistra generated 2016 million overnight stays in 3,13, an increase of three percent compared to last year. This year, too, the largest increase in overnight stays was recorded in the luxury hotel segment, averaging eleven percent. In the observed reporting period, the prices of overnight stays increased by six percent at the company level. Investment in the destination, investments in top products as well as further growth in the share of direct sales channels had a positive impact on the revenue side. In 2016, Maistra generated operating revenue of HRK 950 million, which is ten percent more than last year’s revenue. Operating profit amounted to HRK 221 million or nine percent more than in 2015. Net profit amounts to HRK 131 million, which is an increase of 28 percent. “The achieved results are the best confirmation that Adris has successfully completed the transformation of the company. We have created growing and long-term sustainable business and preserved a respectable investment potential. ” points out the President of the Management Board of Adris Group, mr. sc. Ante VlahovićThe Hilton Hotel in Dubrovnik, which was acquired in 2014, recorded an increase in all key indicators. Overnight stays in 2016 increased by four percent, prices by one, and accommodation revenues by five percent. Operating profit of HRK 16 million was achieved, which is an increase of 22 percent. Net profit amounts to HRK 12 million or 53 percent more than the profit realized in 2015.By 2020, Maistra will invest an additional two billion kuna, which will put 95 percent of hotel capacity at the highest level of supply. The current indebtedness at the level of debt and EBITDA ratio of 2,8 enables Maistra to independently finance the mentioned investment cycle.
Share on Twitter Share A preliminary study of retired National Football League (NFL) players suggests that history of concussion with loss of consciousness may be a risk factor for increased brain atrophy in the area involved with memory storage and impaired memory performance later in life, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology.While most individuals recover completely from concussion within days or weeks, the potential association of concussion and the subsequent development of memory dysfunction with brain atrophy later in life remains poorly understood, according to the study background.Munro Cullum, Ph.D., a neuropsychologist at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, and coauthors examined the relationship of memory performance with hippocampal volume and with the influence of concussion history in retired NFL athletes with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Share on Facebook Email Pinterest LinkedIn The authors recruited retired NFL athletes living in Texas to build a sample of 28 former athletes, eight of whom were diagnosed as having MCI and had a history of concussion. The study also included 21 cognitively healthy control group participants with no history of concussion or past football experience and an additional six control participants with MCI but without history of concussion. Of the 28 retired football players, 17 had reported a grade 3 (G3) concussion with loss of consciousness.The study found that former athletes with concussion history but without MCI had normal but lower scores on a test of verbal memory compared with control participants, while athletes with a concussion history and MCI performed worse compared with both control participants and athletes without memory impairment. There was no difference in scores between control participants with MCI and athletes with MCI on the test.Former athletes without a concussion and loss of consciousness showed similar hippocampal volumes compared with control participants across age ranges. However, older retired athletes with at least one concussion with loss of consciousness had smaller hippocampal volumes compared with control subjects and a smaller right hippocampal volume compared with athletes without a G3 concussion. The left hippocampal volume in retired athletes with MCI and concussion also was smaller compared with control participants with MCI.All of the retired athletes older than 63 years of age with a history of G3 concussion (7 of 7) were diagnosed with MCI and only one former athlete was diagnosed as having MCI but did not have a concussion with loss of consciousness (1 of 5), according to the results. Also, there was no relationship found between the number of games played and MCI, the study reports.“Our findings suggest that a remote history of concussion with loss of consciousness is associated with both later-in-life decreases in hippocampal volume and memory performance in retired NFL players. … Our findings further show that a history of G3 concussion in athletes with MCI was associated with greater hippocampal volume loss compared with control participants with MCI. Prospective longitudinal studies after a G3 concussion would add further insight to the mechanism of MCI development in these populations,” the study concludes.
NMDOT News:The New Mexico Department of Transportation would like the traveling public to be aware of changes to the current traffic pattern in the construction zone on N.M. 502 in Los Alamos.Effective Monday Aug. 3, 2020, N.M. 502 will be partially reopened to through traffic. There will be one lane open in each direction from Tewa Loop to DP Road. Access to local streets from Tewa Loop to Arroyo Lane will still be provided.Access to Central Avenue and 4th Street from N.M. 502 will be closed for construction of the roundabout. This closure is expected to last 8 weeks. Central Avenue and 4th Street can still be accessed via Knecht Street.Information is available at www.nmroads.com.
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OVER 100 companies from the private sector have been sent a Market Sounding Paper by London Underground after registering their interest in the Public-Private Partnership announced by Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott on March 20 (RG 5.98 p289). Responses were required by mid-September and LU was to ask ’a cross-section of respondents’ to meetings ’to discuss the way ahead’, with other interested parties asked to give their answers to ’specific questions’.Due to start in spring 2000, the PPP will involve a public-sector LU Operating Company retaining responsibility for safety, fares, train and station operation as well as signalling and network control. The company will be owned by Transport for London, which as an executive arm of the yet to be created Greater London Authority will replace London Transport. Infrastructure provision and maintenance will be the responsibility of one or more private-sector companies.Representatives of the civil engineering, infrastructure maintenance, financial and consultancy sectors have registered an interest in the PPP, as well as utilities and companies involved in project management and property development. Those already active in Britain’s rail sector include Adtranz, Bombardier, First Engineering, GB Railways, Railtrack and WS Atkins. LU’s power supply passed into private hands on August 16 when the Seeboard Powerlink consortium began a 30-year Power contract under the Private Finance Initiative (RG 9.98 p570).CityLink Telecommunications Ltd has been selected as the single bidder to install and manage a new communications system for LU, comprising a digital radio system based on the Tetra standard and an optical fibre network for telephones, data transmission and video. Responsible for financing and managing the Connect project, worth £1bn over 20 years, CityLink is owned by Racal Telecommunications, Flour Daniel International, Hyder, Charterhouse Bank and Motorola. o
Table II. Key specifications for hybrid wheelsets Wheel discs Aluminium alloy AlMgSi F31 (EN-AW 6082T6) Axle Steel 30NiCrMo V12 Tyre Steel B5T Static axleload, tonnes 16 Design life 3 million km (wheel disc)15 million km (axle) Service temperature range íC -40 to +70 The EU-funded Hiperwheel research project explored the structural and fatigue life of wheelsets and developed a prototype composite design that offers a 25% weight saving and a reduction in radiated noise of around 6 dB(A),Dipl-Ing Martin Große-Hovest works in the centre for Service Load Simulation & Evaluation at the Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability & System Reliability in Darmstadt, where Dr-Ing Gerhard Fischer was Head of the Structures and Components Business Unit. Dr-Ing Bernd Velten works on development and technical consulting for Otto Fuchs KG in Meinerzhagen, and Ing Steven Cervello is Head of Product Development for Lucchini Sidermecchanica SpA of LovereAS SPEEDS AND axleloads continue to increase, wear and safety are becoming ever more critical to today’s railway operators. New manufacturing techniques and the use of lighter materials offer the potential to reduce significantly the costs of infrastructure maintenance and energy consumption. At the same time, improving bogie dynamics and wheelset design will improve riding comfort.The Hiperwheel project (HIgh PERformance WHEELset), has brought together researchers, manufacturers and operators to develop an innovative wheelset. As it meets the objectives of the ERRAC Strategic Rail Research Agenda 2020, the work received €3·7m in funding from the EU’s Fifth Framework research budget.The project required the collection of data on design loadings and a fundamental re-examination of the assessment of contact fatigue in wheelsets and axles under operational conditions. Experimental and theoretical stress analysis led to the development of a demonstration wheelset which is approximately 25% lighter than a conventional steel wheelset and offers a reduction in radiated noise of 5 to 6 dB(A). Issues and objectivesThe use of aluminium alloys for wheel discs and new high-strength steels for axles is a challenging opportunity. Within the scope of the project, the interdisciplinary research included: load data acquisition on various tracks regarding noise, riding behaviour, comfort and structural durability; design of prototype lightweight steel and hybrid (steel-aluminium) wheelsets using modern experimental and numerical methods; characterisation of the main damage mechanisms such as contact fatigue in press-fits and wheel-rail contact; verification of the theoretical performance using manufactured prototype wheelsets.In particular, comprehensive tests were undertaken to validate the structural durability of the wheelset. In addition the research results could be used to support a recommendation on how to overcome the partial deficiencies of the existing European wheel standards. Because of the wide range of tasks, the Hiperwheel consortium included representatives from the manufacturing industry and research fields as well as railway operators. Table I shows how the various work packages were shared between the different partners. The hybrid wheelsetProduced by Lucchini and Otto Fuchs, the hybrid wheelset consists of a high-strength steel axle and forged aluminium wheel discs (left). With a total weight of 782 kg the wheelset is approximately 25% lighter than a conventional steel wheelset which weighs 1045 kg. The main technical data for this wheelset are shown in Table II. The Fraunhofer Institute (LBF) undertook comprehensive measurements in its unique wheelset test rig, using a range of different load assumptions in order to guarantee structural durability despite the known defects in the current norm. Extensive investigations were carried out with the manufacturers on improving the press-fit connection between wheel and axle2-6. Fig 1 shows the test results for a press-fit using an axle made from 30NiCrMoV12 and an aluminium wheel hub. Woehler tests were done with a constant amplitude and Gassner tests with a variable amplitude, to determine the permissible total damage from fretting fatigue in order to estimate the potential service life under varying operational conditions.From these investigations it was found that: fretting fatigue leads to expectation of different damage behaviour with variable amplitude compared with constant amplitude3,5; the aluminium-steel press-fit has a similar effect on reducing fatigue strength to that of a steel-steel connection; the increase in fatigue strength obtained by using the higher strength material 30NiCrMoV12 is much smaller in press-fits than is suggested by the relationships of the static fatigue strength values2,8.Fretting fatigue results in a large scatter. Under constant amplitude tests, there is no fatigue strength endurance limit, contrary to the design recommendations in the various European norms, UIC515-5, EN 13103, EN 13104, and EN 13261, which are based on an ‘infinite life’ design. To avoid these and other significant shortcomings of the norms, some partners put forward proposals for practice-oriented design8.The fracture surfaces produced in the Gassner tests (Fig 2b) are comparable with many genuine fractures in service7. The illustrated fracture surface shows the typical beach marks found in operating conditions, which are not similar to the fracture surface produced with constant amplitude (Fig 2a). With the help of further analysis, it is possible to draw conclusions from these fracture surfaces regarding crack growth and to define axle inspection intervals.The results obtained with component-like material samples were checked using real wheelsets with optimised parameters on the test rig. The Woehler and Gassner curves mostly determined under rotating bending stress must be corrected for use with driven axles, because with combined torsional and bending stress in the press-fits, the effect of fretting fatigue will be greater. Validation testsFollowing the decision to design the prototype wheelsets for an Italian TAF double-deck EMU, maximum design forces for various load cases were derived from the measurement data1,2 and the data of the individual spectra (cumulative frequency distribution). This enabled the development of both design spectra and test spectra for the trials (Fig 3).For reliable validation of the structural durability of multi-piece wheels, the most important requirement was to ensure a realistic deformation of the axle in the test facility similar to the deformation experienced in operation. It was also necessary to simulate all load cases with realistic correlation of the individual forces. These requirements are not even approximately fulfilled with the simplified testing methods employed for the solid steel wheels involved up to now, and in fact many parts of the wheelset are inaccessible for testing.On the LBF wheelset test rig it is possible to simulate decisive load cases such as straight runs at up to 350 km/h with high centrifugal forces, curving and passing through switches and crossings4,6. This permits quick and realistic approval for new design variants, materials and production methods.For time and cost reasons three tests are usually undertaken for experimental validation2,9. Preliminary finite-element modelling was carried out both for the stress analysis and fatigue life evaluation of the aluminium wheel disc, and also in order to detect highly-stressed areas for further experimental stress analyses.Computer-aided fatigue assessment using the LBF wheel strength software allows the production of pre-optimised prototypes of rail wheels, which in turn enables the number of tests to be minimised. The assessment estimates the crack initiation on the inner wheel disc region on node 484 (Fig 3). The calculated required fatigue strength value (RFS) in this area is 56MPa. Detailed experimental stress analysis using strain gauges was carried out on the wheel disc on the prototype wheel. The first conclusion to be drawn from this was that the RFS for the highly-stressed aluminium disc area had a value of 57MPa, which coincided well with the value calculated using FEM. This value falls within the existing range of permissible stresses9, but whether or not this is actually achievable must finally be determined by independent tests. New materials and load assumptions Yield strength values for medium-strength aluminium alloys meet those of typical wheel disc steels like C22, C35 and 46MnSi4. But if other specific requirements of railway applications, such as a long-life component durability of up to 30 years, are taken into account, additional properties like fatigue behaviour, corrosion resistance and notch sensitivity become relevant.Considering this combination of requirements as a whole, the alloy EN-AW 6082 T6 was selected as offering the most favourable combination of properties. It is a medium-strength alloy with the best corrosion resistance of all age-hardening alloys. It can be formed by rolling, extruding and forging at high temperatures.Table III shows the specifications for the TAF EMU wheelsets. The design loads shown refer to the ‘classic’ durability assessment as defined in UICfiche 510, which were used for basic calculations of the wheel design.The specific strength (YS/density) of EN AW 6082 is comparable to those of typical wheel disc steel alloys. On the other hand, the wear properties of aluminium and other light alloys are poor, which requires the use of a steel rim to avoid early failure in the wheel-rail contact zone. This led to the design of a two-part wheel assembled from an aluminium core and a steel rim. With press-fit connections between axle and hub and between disc and tyre, reliable transmission of traction and braking forces will require a good grip in both areas.The wheel is designed so that old tyres can be cut up for removal from the disc, whilst the dismounting of the disc from the axle is supported by oil pressure applied through a borehole in the hub.For the fundamental calculations, the overall geometry of the wheel disc was chosen as flat and symmetrical. The symmetry of the tyre seat and the flat web geometry avoid radial bending stresses as a result of the vertical load. This offers considerably lower stress amplitudes compared to a curved geometry.An additional advantage of the flat web geometry is that only compression stresses, which are known to have a positive effect on the fatigue behaviour, result from the shrink fits. The criterion for the dimension of the axle-disc press-fit is the reliable transmission of moments under all service conditions. As a conservative limit the braking moment for blocked wheels was selected. Test resultsTwo full-scale validation tests were carried out in the test rig during the research project. Different variations of tyre and axle press-fits were manufactured to simulate the worst case scenarios, with different temperatures resulting from service conditions producing various pre-stresses in the wheel disc. During one test, a fatigue crack occurred on the highly stressed disc area – as predicted – after the test requirement had been exceeded (Fig 4). Another wheel, optimised in the wheelseat region, achieved a test life of 70000 km without any visible cracks on the disc and axle and without significant wear in either the axle or tyre seats. This corresponds to a service life of more than 10 million km.Additional validation tests will still be required to verify these single test results. These will need to investigate possible influences resulting from repeated assembly of the wheel disc to the axle and of the tyre to the wheel, the effects of worn tyres, temperatures on the wheel rim/disc interface during braking, and the effect of impact damage on the lightweight wheel disc.From practical experience with wheelsets that break in service, the conclusion can be drawn that an infinite life is not possible. If newly-developed lightweight designs are to be used widely, new validation procedures will be needed to guarantee safety standards, incorporating better knowledge of operational loads and their spectra.The major limitations of the existing European specifications in terms of the load and stress levels for modern rolling stock could be avoided by applying this new method of validation testing.Nevertheless, the Hiperwheel project has established the feasibility of a new wheelset design, using aluminium wheel discs and high-strength steel axle. This offers the potential for a significant reduction in weight and noise compared to a standard steel wheelset. Table I. Partners in the Hiperwheel project Work package Responsible partner 1 Service measurements Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability & System Reliability (LBF), Germany 2 Dynamic modelling Politecnico di Milano, Italy 3 Damage mechanisms and design University of Sheffield, UK 4 CAE-based procedure for durability Fiat Research Centre (CRF), Italy 5 Numerical procedure for Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden 6 Development of demonstrators Lucchini Sidermeccanica SpA, Italy 7 Manufacturing of prototypes Valdunes SAS, France 8 Full scale testing on demonstrators Fraunhofer Institute, Germany 9 Management dissemination Fiat Research Centre (CRF), Italy Wheel production Otto Fuchs Metallwerke KG, GermanyLucchini Sidermeccanica SpA, Italy Other partners TrenItalia, Mechanical Dynamics, Italy Table III. Specifications and load assumptions for TAF EMU wheelsets Wheel diameter (new/worn) mm 920/860 Axle diameter mm 190 Rim profile UICORE-fiche 510-2 Axleload tonnes 16 Vertical load to be used in design kN 125 Lateral load to be used in design kN 60 Maximum speed km/h 160 Service temperature range íC -40 to +70 Picture caption: Two full-scale validation tests were carried out using the Fraunhofer Institute’s wheelset test rig. The tyres and axle press-fits were specially manufactured to simulate the worst case pre-stresses which would occur in servicePicture caption: Fig 1. Results of fatigue tests on a press-fit between a steel axle and an aluminium wheel discTs: fatigue strength scatterTN: fatigue life scatter for probability of survival (Ps) = 90% and 10%D: axle diameter at wheel seatd: diameter of axles after fillet radiush: slope of curvePicture caption: Fig 2. Variable amplitude tests of 25CrMo4 steel samples produced fracture surfaces exhibiting ‘beach marks’ (b, right), similar to fractures which have occurred on wheelsets in service. Constant amplitude fracture surfaces are visibly different (a, left), and analysis enables the estimation of crack growth rates and defintion of inspection intervals Picture caption: Fig 3. Calculation of the required fatigue strength value (RFS) on the hybrid steel-aluminium wheelsetPicture caption: Fig 4. As expected, fatigue cracking occurred on the highly stressed disc once the test wheelsets were subjected to loads above those which would be encountered in reality References1. Hiperwheel – development of an innovative high performance railway wheelset. European Community research project GRD1-1999-11028, final report, 20052. Fischer G and Grubisic V. Dimensioning of wheelset axles – influencing parameters and procedure for the structural durability validation. Report No. FB-226-e, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Darmstadt, Germany, 20053. Waterhouse R B. Fretting Corrosion. Pergamon Press, 19724. Fischer G, Grubisic V, and Widmayer H. Fatigue Tests on Wheelsets under Simulated Service Stress Spectra. 9th International Wheelset Congress, Montréal, 19885. Fischer G, Grubisic V and Buxbaum O. The influence of fretting corrosion on fatigue strength of nodular cast iron and steel under constant amplitude and load spectrum tests. Standardisation of Fretting Fatigue Test Methods & Equipments, ASTM Special Technical Publication No 1159. 19926. Fischer G and Grubisic V. Service-like durability approval of wheelsets. 12th International Wheelset Congress, Qingdao, 19987. Fischer G, and Grubisic V. Versagen von Radsatzwellen und dessen Ursache. ZEVrail – Glasers Annalen, March 20068. Grubisic V and Fischer G. Betriebsfeste Bemessung von Radsatzwellen. Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau 55, 20069. Sonsino C M, Berg-Pollack A and Grubisic V. Structural durability proof of automotive aluminum safety components – present state-of-the-art. SAE Technical Paper Series 2005-01-0800