Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters Subscribe now for unlimited access Subscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Get your free guest access SIGN UP TODAY To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN
The company’s range of amphibious hoverbarges is capable of carrying hundreds of tonnes in payload over swamps, wetlands and shallow water, enabling heavy equipment, large quantities of oil spill dispersant and a large personnel base to be located in the heart of the wetlands. A significant advantage of the hoverbarge is that it only exerts 1psi ground pressure whilst on hover, thus minimising any environmental footprint and further damage to the wetlands. “Hovertrans Solutions’ new modular range of hoverbarges, ranging from 50 tonnes to 400 tonnes, are constructed from specially designed pontoons with a modular skirt and lift fan system. These allow the hoverbarges to be trucked to the location and assembled on-site, enabling access to inland areas such as lakes, rivers and wetlands. We believe our smaller hoverbarges could prove useful for the oil spill recovery in Louisiana,” said James Soon, president, Hovertrans Solutions Hovertrans Solutions is a subsidiary of Singapore Technologies Marine Ltd (ST Marine) and led by a management team responsible for pioneering the heavy lift hoverbarge since the 1970s. ST Marine is the marine arm of ST Engineering and provides turnkey building, repair and conversion services for a wide spectrum of naval and commercial vessels.Small hoverbarges can be used for boom deployment and oil spill recovery as illustrated in the pictures below.
The shipment included 20 ft and 30 ft tank containers and was transported with an LCT ship to Sambarata. Six parties were involved in this shipment. Modified containers are containers of which internal parts are modified in order to use them as moveable mini offices or factories.Meanwhile, Ahlers Bangalore co-ordinated a shipment from Dalian, China to Bangalore of machinery and components necessary for the set-up of a production site of electric motors near Bangalore. The consignment included a giant dip tank.Practical problems with the tank forced Ahlers Bangalore to ship out of Tianjin, where the local Ahlers office took over the co-ordination.
The reels, which were spooled with more than 25 km of cables, were required by ConocoPhillips to connect offshore installations in the Indonesian Natuna Sea.The heaviest reel weighed in at 252 tonnes. www.rolitrans.co.id
Effective March 1, Biesterfeld will be responsible for C.H. Robinson’s five business divisions, in addition to the company’s commercial operations and information technology.Having held various positions at C.H. Robinson over the past 19 years, he will continue to serve as president of the company’s North American Surface Transportation (NAST) division. www.chrobinson.com
Digital disruption, however, was not high on the list of threats facing forwarders. Only 2 percent of respondents classed 3D printing as the biggest threat to the market, while blockchain technology and autonomous shipping ranked second in the list, each with 12 percent.While digitalisation was not the biggest concern for freight forwarders, 54 percent of those asked said it is “extremely important” to their strategy, although responses varied when asked how they plan to invest in digitalisation.30 percent of respondents said they would build their own solutions, while 28 percent said they would utilise off-the-shelf platforms. Only 18 percent of respondents planned to invest in digitalisation through partnerships, while 16 percent of those surveyed plan to achieve digitalisation through acquisitions.Tight margins, meanwhile, continued to be the most critical “pain point” for freight forwarders. 46 percent of respondents selected this issue over capacity concerns, uncertain global environments, and rates.Only 6 percent of respondents cited the uncertain global environment as the most critical “pain point”, compared to 22 percent of respondents in the 2017 Evolving Freight Forwarding Market report.logisticstrendsandinsights.com
The head of the judiciary in England and Wales said today that the criminal courts charge introduced by the last government for guilty defendants has ‘not gone correctly’ and needs to be reviewed ‘as soon as possible’.Answering questions from journalists, Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, the lord chief justice, said that imposing the charge on top of other levies ‘is not raising much money’ and has increased the number of people who cannot pay.He likened that to the situation posed by fixed penalty notices, where individuals found ‘very significant sums levied against them which they had absolutely no prospect of paying’.When a policy ‘has not gone correctly’ it should be looked at again, he said. Pressed on what he meant by ‘not gone correctly’, Lord Thomas (pictured) said: ‘It is obvious that there is a problem with financial penalties as a whole, so I would hope this is an area the government will engage with as soon as possible but in a wider context,’ he said. ‘That’s why I very much hope that the lord chancellor will look at the matter in the round, and perhaps find an interim solution.’Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd said that the courts system as currently established would not be able to cope with a combination of spending cuts and an increased workload of complex sex, cybercrime and terrorism cases. ‘The only way forward is reform.’He said that progress is being made on the Leveson proposals for increasing efficiency in criminal courts, but that more needs to be done. Containing a rise in costs is ‘critical to reform’, he said, noting that: ‘As for lawyers, the market has been good for them on the whole. Legal fees are high.’
RUSSIA: Plans to order dual-system electric locos for high speed passenger trains were announced by Russian Railways President Gennady Fadeyev on March 2.On the same day RZD and Russian locomotive builder Transmash Holding signed an agreement with Bombardier Transportation covering a pre-series build of 12 EP10 locos. To be built by 2006 at an estimated cost of 450m roubles, they will be built at Novocherkassk using three-phase traction equipment from Bombardier. Two are to be completed by July, and five more by the end of this year. The agreement also provides for series production in the longer term.Fadeyev said the first locos would be used on the Moscow – Kyiv route, cutting the journey time between the Russian and Ukrainian capitals by 5h. The existing EP10 prototype was due to be tested at the North Caucasus Railway’s Belorechenkaya-Maykop test centre last month. The others will work on the Moscow – Smolensk – Minsk and Moscow – Nishni Novgorod routes. State planning institute Giprotrans is drawing up proposals for a network of high speed lines radiating from Moscow. Top priority is a 650 km route to St Petersburg, which would open around 2020. This would be followed by a line to Minsk and Brest (1040 km) in 2025. Routes from Moscow to Rostov-na-Donu and Sochi (1630 km) and to Nishni Novgorod and Ekaterinburg (1435 km) would follow around 2030.
Table II. Key specifications for hybrid wheelsets Wheel discs Aluminium alloy AlMgSi F31 (EN-AW 6082T6) Axle Steel 30NiCrMo V12 Tyre Steel B5T Static axleload, tonnes 16 Design life 3 million km (wheel disc)15 million km (axle) Service temperature range íC -40 to +70 The EU-funded Hiperwheel research project explored the structural and fatigue life of wheelsets and developed a prototype composite design that offers a 25% weight saving and a reduction in radiated noise of around 6 dB(A),Dipl-Ing Martin Große-Hovest works in the centre for Service Load Simulation & Evaluation at the Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability & System Reliability in Darmstadt, where Dr-Ing Gerhard Fischer was Head of the Structures and Components Business Unit. Dr-Ing Bernd Velten works on development and technical consulting for Otto Fuchs KG in Meinerzhagen, and Ing Steven Cervello is Head of Product Development for Lucchini Sidermecchanica SpA of LovereAS SPEEDS AND axleloads continue to increase, wear and safety are becoming ever more critical to today’s railway operators. New manufacturing techniques and the use of lighter materials offer the potential to reduce significantly the costs of infrastructure maintenance and energy consumption. At the same time, improving bogie dynamics and wheelset design will improve riding comfort.The Hiperwheel project (HIgh PERformance WHEELset), has brought together researchers, manufacturers and operators to develop an innovative wheelset. As it meets the objectives of the ERRAC Strategic Rail Research Agenda 2020, the work received €3·7m in funding from the EU’s Fifth Framework research budget.The project required the collection of data on design loadings and a fundamental re-examination of the assessment of contact fatigue in wheelsets and axles under operational conditions. Experimental and theoretical stress analysis led to the development of a demonstration wheelset which is approximately 25% lighter than a conventional steel wheelset and offers a reduction in radiated noise of 5 to 6 dB(A). Issues and objectivesThe use of aluminium alloys for wheel discs and new high-strength steels for axles is a challenging opportunity. Within the scope of the project, the interdisciplinary research included: load data acquisition on various tracks regarding noise, riding behaviour, comfort and structural durability; design of prototype lightweight steel and hybrid (steel-aluminium) wheelsets using modern experimental and numerical methods; characterisation of the main damage mechanisms such as contact fatigue in press-fits and wheel-rail contact; verification of the theoretical performance using manufactured prototype wheelsets.In particular, comprehensive tests were undertaken to validate the structural durability of the wheelset. In addition the research results could be used to support a recommendation on how to overcome the partial deficiencies of the existing European wheel standards. Because of the wide range of tasks, the Hiperwheel consortium included representatives from the manufacturing industry and research fields as well as railway operators. Table I shows how the various work packages were shared between the different partners. The hybrid wheelsetProduced by Lucchini and Otto Fuchs, the hybrid wheelset consists of a high-strength steel axle and forged aluminium wheel discs (left). With a total weight of 782 kg the wheelset is approximately 25% lighter than a conventional steel wheelset which weighs 1045 kg. The main technical data for this wheelset are shown in Table II. The Fraunhofer Institute (LBF) undertook comprehensive measurements in its unique wheelset test rig, using a range of different load assumptions in order to guarantee structural durability despite the known defects in the current norm. Extensive investigations were carried out with the manufacturers on improving the press-fit connection between wheel and axle2-6. Fig 1 shows the test results for a press-fit using an axle made from 30NiCrMoV12 and an aluminium wheel hub. Woehler tests were done with a constant amplitude and Gassner tests with a variable amplitude, to determine the permissible total damage from fretting fatigue in order to estimate the potential service life under varying operational conditions.From these investigations it was found that: fretting fatigue leads to expectation of different damage behaviour with variable amplitude compared with constant amplitude3,5; the aluminium-steel press-fit has a similar effect on reducing fatigue strength to that of a steel-steel connection; the increase in fatigue strength obtained by using the higher strength material 30NiCrMoV12 is much smaller in press-fits than is suggested by the relationships of the static fatigue strength values2,8.Fretting fatigue results in a large scatter. Under constant amplitude tests, there is no fatigue strength endurance limit, contrary to the design recommendations in the various European norms, UIC515-5, EN 13103, EN 13104, and EN 13261, which are based on an ‘infinite life’ design. To avoid these and other significant shortcomings of the norms, some partners put forward proposals for practice-oriented design8.The fracture surfaces produced in the Gassner tests (Fig 2b) are comparable with many genuine fractures in service7. The illustrated fracture surface shows the typical beach marks found in operating conditions, which are not similar to the fracture surface produced with constant amplitude (Fig 2a). With the help of further analysis, it is possible to draw conclusions from these fracture surfaces regarding crack growth and to define axle inspection intervals.The results obtained with component-like material samples were checked using real wheelsets with optimised parameters on the test rig. The Woehler and Gassner curves mostly determined under rotating bending stress must be corrected for use with driven axles, because with combined torsional and bending stress in the press-fits, the effect of fretting fatigue will be greater. Validation testsFollowing the decision to design the prototype wheelsets for an Italian TAF double-deck EMU, maximum design forces for various load cases were derived from the measurement data1,2 and the data of the individual spectra (cumulative frequency distribution). This enabled the development of both design spectra and test spectra for the trials (Fig 3).For reliable validation of the structural durability of multi-piece wheels, the most important requirement was to ensure a realistic deformation of the axle in the test facility similar to the deformation experienced in operation. It was also necessary to simulate all load cases with realistic correlation of the individual forces. These requirements are not even approximately fulfilled with the simplified testing methods employed for the solid steel wheels involved up to now, and in fact many parts of the wheelset are inaccessible for testing.On the LBF wheelset test rig it is possible to simulate decisive load cases such as straight runs at up to 350 km/h with high centrifugal forces, curving and passing through switches and crossings4,6. This permits quick and realistic approval for new design variants, materials and production methods.For time and cost reasons three tests are usually undertaken for experimental validation2,9. Preliminary finite-element modelling was carried out both for the stress analysis and fatigue life evaluation of the aluminium wheel disc, and also in order to detect highly-stressed areas for further experimental stress analyses.Computer-aided fatigue assessment using the LBF wheel strength software allows the production of pre-optimised prototypes of rail wheels, which in turn enables the number of tests to be minimised. The assessment estimates the crack initiation on the inner wheel disc region on node 484 (Fig 3). The calculated required fatigue strength value (RFS) in this area is 56MPa. Detailed experimental stress analysis using strain gauges was carried out on the wheel disc on the prototype wheel. The first conclusion to be drawn from this was that the RFS for the highly-stressed aluminium disc area had a value of 57MPa, which coincided well with the value calculated using FEM. This value falls within the existing range of permissible stresses9, but whether or not this is actually achievable must finally be determined by independent tests. New materials and load assumptions Yield strength values for medium-strength aluminium alloys meet those of typical wheel disc steels like C22, C35 and 46MnSi4. But if other specific requirements of railway applications, such as a long-life component durability of up to 30 years, are taken into account, additional properties like fatigue behaviour, corrosion resistance and notch sensitivity become relevant.Considering this combination of requirements as a whole, the alloy EN-AW 6082 T6 was selected as offering the most favourable combination of properties. It is a medium-strength alloy with the best corrosion resistance of all age-hardening alloys. It can be formed by rolling, extruding and forging at high temperatures.Table III shows the specifications for the TAF EMU wheelsets. The design loads shown refer to the ‘classic’ durability assessment as defined in UICfiche 510, which were used for basic calculations of the wheel design.The specific strength (YS/density) of EN AW 6082 is comparable to those of typical wheel disc steel alloys. On the other hand, the wear properties of aluminium and other light alloys are poor, which requires the use of a steel rim to avoid early failure in the wheel-rail contact zone. This led to the design of a two-part wheel assembled from an aluminium core and a steel rim. With press-fit connections between axle and hub and between disc and tyre, reliable transmission of traction and braking forces will require a good grip in both areas.The wheel is designed so that old tyres can be cut up for removal from the disc, whilst the dismounting of the disc from the axle is supported by oil pressure applied through a borehole in the hub.For the fundamental calculations, the overall geometry of the wheel disc was chosen as flat and symmetrical. The symmetry of the tyre seat and the flat web geometry avoid radial bending stresses as a result of the vertical load. This offers considerably lower stress amplitudes compared to a curved geometry.An additional advantage of the flat web geometry is that only compression stresses, which are known to have a positive effect on the fatigue behaviour, result from the shrink fits. The criterion for the dimension of the axle-disc press-fit is the reliable transmission of moments under all service conditions. As a conservative limit the braking moment for blocked wheels was selected. Test resultsTwo full-scale validation tests were carried out in the test rig during the research project. Different variations of tyre and axle press-fits were manufactured to simulate the worst case scenarios, with different temperatures resulting from service conditions producing various pre-stresses in the wheel disc. During one test, a fatigue crack occurred on the highly stressed disc area – as predicted – after the test requirement had been exceeded (Fig 4). Another wheel, optimised in the wheelseat region, achieved a test life of 70000 km without any visible cracks on the disc and axle and without significant wear in either the axle or tyre seats. This corresponds to a service life of more than 10 million km.Additional validation tests will still be required to verify these single test results. These will need to investigate possible influences resulting from repeated assembly of the wheel disc to the axle and of the tyre to the wheel, the effects of worn tyres, temperatures on the wheel rim/disc interface during braking, and the effect of impact damage on the lightweight wheel disc.From practical experience with wheelsets that break in service, the conclusion can be drawn that an infinite life is not possible. If newly-developed lightweight designs are to be used widely, new validation procedures will be needed to guarantee safety standards, incorporating better knowledge of operational loads and their spectra.The major limitations of the existing European specifications in terms of the load and stress levels for modern rolling stock could be avoided by applying this new method of validation testing.Nevertheless, the Hiperwheel project has established the feasibility of a new wheelset design, using aluminium wheel discs and high-strength steel axle. This offers the potential for a significant reduction in weight and noise compared to a standard steel wheelset. Table I. Partners in the Hiperwheel project Work package Responsible partner 1 Service measurements Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability & System Reliability (LBF), Germany 2 Dynamic modelling Politecnico di Milano, Italy 3 Damage mechanisms and design University of Sheffield, UK 4 CAE-based procedure for durability Fiat Research Centre (CRF), Italy 5 Numerical procedure for Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden 6 Development of demonstrators Lucchini Sidermeccanica SpA, Italy 7 Manufacturing of prototypes Valdunes SAS, France 8 Full scale testing on demonstrators Fraunhofer Institute, Germany 9 Management dissemination Fiat Research Centre (CRF), Italy Wheel production Otto Fuchs Metallwerke KG, GermanyLucchini Sidermeccanica SpA, Italy Other partners TrenItalia, Mechanical Dynamics, Italy Table III. Specifications and load assumptions for TAF EMU wheelsets Wheel diameter (new/worn) mm 920/860 Axle diameter mm 190 Rim profile UICORE-fiche 510-2 Axleload tonnes 16 Vertical load to be used in design kN 125 Lateral load to be used in design kN 60 Maximum speed km/h 160 Service temperature range íC -40 to +70 Picture caption: Two full-scale validation tests were carried out using the Fraunhofer Institute’s wheelset test rig. The tyres and axle press-fits were specially manufactured to simulate the worst case pre-stresses which would occur in servicePicture caption: Fig 1. Results of fatigue tests on a press-fit between a steel axle and an aluminium wheel discTs: fatigue strength scatterTN: fatigue life scatter for probability of survival (Ps) = 90% and 10%D: axle diameter at wheel seatd: diameter of axles after fillet radiush: slope of curvePicture caption: Fig 2. Variable amplitude tests of 25CrMo4 steel samples produced fracture surfaces exhibiting ‘beach marks’ (b, right), similar to fractures which have occurred on wheelsets in service. Constant amplitude fracture surfaces are visibly different (a, left), and analysis enables the estimation of crack growth rates and defintion of inspection intervals Picture caption: Fig 3. Calculation of the required fatigue strength value (RFS) on the hybrid steel-aluminium wheelsetPicture caption: Fig 4. As expected, fatigue cracking occurred on the highly stressed disc once the test wheelsets were subjected to loads above those which would be encountered in reality References1. Hiperwheel – development of an innovative high performance railway wheelset. European Community research project GRD1-1999-11028, final report, 20052. Fischer G and Grubisic V. Dimensioning of wheelset axles – influencing parameters and procedure for the structural durability validation. Report No. FB-226-e, Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability, Darmstadt, Germany, 20053. Waterhouse R B. Fretting Corrosion. Pergamon Press, 19724. Fischer G, Grubisic V, and Widmayer H. Fatigue Tests on Wheelsets under Simulated Service Stress Spectra. 9th International Wheelset Congress, Montréal, 19885. Fischer G, Grubisic V and Buxbaum O. The influence of fretting corrosion on fatigue strength of nodular cast iron and steel under constant amplitude and load spectrum tests. Standardisation of Fretting Fatigue Test Methods & Equipments, ASTM Special Technical Publication No 1159. 19926. Fischer G and Grubisic V. Service-like durability approval of wheelsets. 12th International Wheelset Congress, Qingdao, 19987. Fischer G, and Grubisic V. Versagen von Radsatzwellen und dessen Ursache. ZEVrail – Glasers Annalen, March 20068. Grubisic V and Fischer G. Betriebsfeste Bemessung von Radsatzwellen. Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau 55, 20069. Sonsino C M, Berg-Pollack A and Grubisic V. Structural durability proof of automotive aluminum safety components – present state-of-the-art. SAE Technical Paper Series 2005-01-0800
Sbusiso Joel Ndebele has been appointed Minister of Transport in South Africa following the general election on April 22. Jeremy Cronin, who chaired the parliamentary transport committee, has become Deputy Transport Minister. Barbara Hogan has been named Minister of Public Enterprises, responsible for state-owned companies including Transnet. Formerly Director of Stations at SNCF, Pascal Lupo has been named Director of International Development and Director-General of SNCF International, succeeding Jean-Pierre Loubinoux who has moved to UIC. Annette Jordan has been appointed head of the International department at SBB Cargo, in place of Edmund Prokschi who becomes head of Marketing & Sales. Jordan is succeeded as head of SBB Cargo Deutschland by Matthias Birnbaum. Deputy General Manager of ISAF, Dan Cernisov was elected President of the Romanian Railway Industry Association (AIF) with effect from April 16. He was formerly Vice-President, and is succeeded in this role by Christian Serjannis, head of Rolling Stock at Siemens Romania. On May 4 Merel van Vroonhoven was appointed as a Director of Netherlands Railways with effect from August 1. Joining the NS board alongside President Bert Meerstadt and Financial Director Marcel van Niggebrugge, she comes from ING Investment Management Europe. Gustav Slamecka has been named Minister of Transport in the Czech Republic, replacing Petr Bendl. Former Chairman & Chief Executive Officer of Norfolk Southern Arnold B McKinnon died on May 18 at the age of 81. He served Southern Railway and NS for 50 years before stepping down as a director in 2000. Russian Railways has named Oleg Sergeevich Ulyanov as Director of its new High Speed department; he was formerly Director of the Moscow ?Division at the October Railway. P P Wijesekara took over as General Manager of Sri Lanka Railways on May 12. Formerly Additional General Manager, he succeeds Dr Lalithsari Gunaruwan. Harmut Gasser has been re-elected as Chairman of the German independent railway operators association Netzwerk Privatbahnen for a further two years. Sven Flore of TX Logistik becomes Vice-Chairman, and Günther Alsdorf of Havelländische Eisenbahn continues as Treasurer. Other board members are Sandrine Bennebroek of ERS Railways, Norbert Hössermann of Mittelweserbahn and Torsten Sewerin of Nordbayrische Eisenbahn. Henry Chipewo has been appointed Acting Managing Director for the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority, following the dismissal of Tazara’s former Managing Director Clement Mwiya in August 2008. Chipewo is Chairman of local transport consultancy Muhechi Enterprises and a board member of Tazara. Dean Finch has joined London Underground PPP concessionaire Tube Lines, where he takes up the post of Chief Executive on June 1. Formerly Chief Operating Officer at FirstGroup plc, he succeeds Terry Morgan who moves to Crossrail as non-executive Chairman, suceeding Douglas Oakervee five months earlier than planned. Luc Jobin has been appointed Executive Vice-President & Chief Financial Officer at Canadian National from June 1. Formerly Executive Vice-President at Power Corp of Canada, he succeeds Claude Mongeau who takes over from E Hunter Harrison as CN’s President & CEO on January 1 (RG 5.09 p54). Richard Robinson has been named Managing Director of Heathrow Express. Joining from internet technology company Tickex, he replaces Brian Raven who left the BAA airport rail link subsidiary earlier this year. Stephen J Gardner has been appointed Vice President, Policy & Development, at Amtrak. Previously on the staff of the US Senate Commerce Committee, he is regarded as an authority on transport policy and legislation. Rick Haythornthwaite has joined Network Rail as a non-executive director. Subject to ratification at the company’s AGM in July, he will succeed Sir Ian MacAllister as Chairman. Non-executive Chairman of Mastercard Inc, Haythorthwaite was CEO of Invensys in 2001-05. French Prime Minister François Fillon has named Philippe Peyronnet to head the working group negotiating the ?financing package for the second phase of LGV Rhin-Rhône. He will liaise with Claude Liebermann who is heading a similar group for Phase 2 of LGV Est Européenne. London Underground’s Director of Strategy & Service Development Richard Parry took over as interim Managing Director on May 1, following the departure of ?Tim O’Toole.Teófilo Serrano took up the post of President at RENFE Operadora on May 18. Formerly Director General of Railways for the Andalucía regional government and head of its infrastructure authority Giasa, he succeeded José Salgueiro who has become Director of Andalucía’s regional port authority.